Thursday, 12 September 2013

Ketones inhibit fat synthesis

Metabolite regulation of nucleo-cytosolic trafficking of carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP): role of ketone bodies.

Without going into all the technical details, here's the punchline....

 These observations show that ketone bodies play an important role in regulation of ChREBP activity by restricting ChREBP localization to the cytoplasm, thus inhibiting fat synthesis during periods of ketosis.

ChREBP is a transcription factor that is activated by increased glucose levels, and ChREBP increases synthesis of enzymes like fatty acid synthase that are responsible for lipogenesis.

Anyway what this paper implies is that high ketone levels will inhibit glucose induced lipogenesis.  I think potentially if your in ketosis this could probably mean that you can eat carbs for 1-2 days while stimulating only very limited lipogenesis. Basically the ability of carbs to cause fat gain should be curbed by high ketone levels. ( in theory ). However ofcourse repeated carb feeding will eventually kill your ketone levels and this will allow ChREBP to frontload its lipogenic power.

Now, who knows the answer to this question....... lets say you eat some carbohydrate, you activate ChREBP and it subsequently causes your cells to manufacture some fatty acid synthase enzymes. Now, how long do these enzymes sit around for? Whats their half life?


From the paper it seems oleate and linoleate also appear to be quite good at inhibiting ChREBP.

Friday, 6 September 2013

Hyperinsulinemia increases GLUT4 in white adipose tissue

Hyperinsulinemia increases the amount of GLUT4 mRNA in white adipose tissue and decreases that of muscles: a clue for increased fat depot and insulin resistance.

To mimick a state of hyperinsulinemia, normal rats were infused with insulin for 4 days via minipumps, and compared to saline infused rats. At the end of the experimental period, the abundance of mRNA was increased in white adipose tissue (WAT) and decreased in muscles of "insulinized" rats compared to controls. These findings were accompanied, in all tissues considered, except the diaphragm, by parallel changes in the amount of the glucose transporter protein and by parallel changes in the in vivo glucose utilization index. Hyperinsulinemia is thus a driving force in stimulating adipose tissue metabolic activity, while bringing about incipient muscle insulin resistance.

 Anyone got full text of this? I havent seen this study on the likes of carbsanity. But anyway its quite clear as I have said before, high fasting insulin is a nasty problem and it contributes to making you fat. The calories go where the GLUT4's are. Calories into muscle = lean and strong, calories into fat = obese and lazy.

Hyperinsulinaemia increases insulin action in vivo in white adipose tissue but not in muscles.

The effect of 4 days of stable hyperglycaemia and resulting hyperinsulinaemia on insulin-induced glucose utilization by individual rat tissues was studied in vivo. The treatment produced a net increase in the glucose utilization index under both basal and insulin-stimulated (euglycaemic/hyperinsulinaemic clamp) conditions in white adipose tissue. On the contrary, glucose utilization was unchanged in aerobic muscles but was decreased in glycolytic skeletal muscles during the clamp.

Old news but still noteworthy.

Wednesday, 4 September 2013

Melanotan II crushed my appetite.

So I been running this at 1mg per day for several weeks now, and im still nowhere near the tanning level I would like to be. As noted previously, theres been some developments however, my skin has undergone much higher pigmentation, lots of new freckles have shown up and some older freckles went REALLY dark. The strangest thing is , without sounding too crude, my penis has an amazing tan despite not seeing even a single photon of UV light.

I dont know what it is but my body is just severely resistant to tanning it seems. But the thing that has struck me the most is the reduction in appetite. Its been phenomenal. In the last week I have been literally having to force myself to eat, im currently running at around 1200 calories per day. Nothing in the fridge looks tasty. Most of my calories have been coming from milk. Even when I ordered a 15inch meat feast pizza I could only eat 2 slices before feeling COMPLETELY full, normally I could eat the whole thing no prob.

Today I even puked up half a tin of salmon I ate for dinner because it felt like "too many calories".

So have I lost any weight? Well yes, but I dont think its as much as it should of been given how little im eating.  Melanotan II has taught me that without a shadow of a doubt hormones control feeding. If your hungry and eating alot, its purely because your hormones are communicating this message to you, and has nothing to do with the reward value of the food or gluttony.

Monday, 2 September 2013

Human body is fucking shit trash

im so frustrated.

I sprained my ankle last Tuesday and its been the worst experience ever. Not only does it fucking hurt like hell, it takes AGES to fucking heal and I cant do shit at moment except ly in bed all day.

Seriously how the fuck did human evolution allow this type of injury to not be weeded out. It can happen SOOO easily and it just completely incapacitates you. In the wild youd be dead for certain with such a simple injury unless you had your family do EVERYTHING for you.

The more I learn about physiology the more I become convinced the human body is just a pathetic frail piece of trash.

Fucking amen for pharmaceuticals and drugs.