The main enzymes involved in hepatic glucose production are....
- Glucose 6-phosphatase ( G6Pase )
- Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase ( PEPCK )
- Pyruvate carboxylase
Further incrimination comes from a 2001 study looking at Metformin's actions on the above 4 enzymes. They found that metformin decreased both endogenous glucose production and alanine gluconeogenesis, there was a strong association bewteen alanine gluconeogenesis and FBPase levels, and metformin was able to reduce hepatic FBPase levels by a whopping 50%! Importantly, they did not record any significant changes in the other gluconeogenic enzymes.
So..... it looks like all fingers are pointing firmly at --> Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase <--
Sadly I dont have access to the full text of the stevia study so I cant really disect the meaningfulness of thier conclusions, but if stevia works by Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase reduction that could be good news. Not only is FBPase involved in hepatic glucose production however, it may even have an affect on adiposity.
Right now I cant help but think that increased hepatic glucose production leads to increased fasting glucose oxidation and thus gets in the way of fat oxidation in the fasting state. This was somewhat alluded to in the gnolls.org post here.
This study looking and respiratory quotients brings up an interesting conclusion....
That "independent of low energy expenditure" part is interesting, something we learnt about in the last post. About how basal energy expenditure is not related to adiposity, well, that seems to agree with the independent thing mentioned above.
a low ratio of fat to carbohydrate oxidation is associated with subsequent weight gain independent of low energy expenditure and may contribute to the familial aggregation of obesity.