Dr Phinney argues that it takes weeks to "keto-adapt" and that the serum ketone levels are very sensitive to not only carbs but also protein in the diet. I think most people knew this, that protein affects serum ketone levels not just carbs. Dr Phinney argues that a low-carb diet must also be a very high fat diet, something which I certainly agree with. But I wasnt to sure on the affects of differing serum ketone levels could have.
Anyway, shortly after I stumbled on this paper which is a big piece of the puzzle. Basically what this says is that beta-hydroxybutyrate stimulates adiponectin secretion through the GPR109A receptor. ( ignore the stuff about niacin ).
Check out the wikipedia page to get a glimpse of how beneficial adiponectin is to health.
So now the picture is very clear, high fat diet along with low carb and low(ish) protein not only results in high glp-1 secretion but also high adiponectin secretion due to high levels of serum ketones. Both glp-1 and adiponectin are very important for curing metabolic syndrome.
Transgenic mice with increased adiponectin show impaired adipocyte differentiation and increased energy expenditure associated with protein uncoupling.
Ah ha! Adiponectin suppresses adipocyte differentiation, what this means is that high levels of adiponectin directly inhibits fat tissue growth! bingo! And it makes sense, high serum ketones is a marker of starvation, and fat tissue growth is the last thing you want when your starving!