Just a quick post, everyone knows ketones suppress appetite, but whats the mechanism? A recent paper has helped shed some light on the mechanics, at physiological blood glucose concentrations of 5.5mM the ketone β-hydroxybutyric suppresses the agouti-related peptide which is a hunger hormone that also blocks the MC4R.
The researchers also tested 25mM and found β-hydroxybutyric increases agouti-related peptide! However I have to ask, what the fuck is the point of that? A blood glucose concentration of 25mM is not exactly possible in vivo is it?
β-hydroxybutyric seems to do this by reducing hypothalamic AMPK. Thats good, because the evidence seems to be that high levels of hypothalamic AMPK put you starvation mode. ( orexigenesis ).
In related research, it seems that MC4R is downstream of both leptin and GLP-1, they work together to act on POMC to produce α-melanocortin stimulating hormone which binds MC4R. Then, binding of MC4R reduces hypothalamic AMPK!
You see, its all connected, love it when a plan comes together. This proves there is more to the ketogenic diet than simply the "satiating power" of protein.
In other news, It seems I was ( kind of ) right about the importance of MC4R, as it is required for weight loss.
Anyway, thanks for coming, you can all go home now.