Countless studies have shown not only the benefit but perhaps the requirment to feeding immediately or atleast very shortly after working out for increased muscle protein synthesis.
From a Hunter-Gatherer perspective, it does not make sense because the kill would need to be dragged back to camp and cooked before we can ingest protein, and I expect this would take up to 3 hours.
While in the wild, animals eat almost immediately upon making a kill. Anyway, this study suggests that hormone sensitive lipase remains acutely elevated after exercise for up to 3 hours.
Remember that as soon as you eat, insulin is going to shut off HSL. There goes your fat burning. Meanwhile, there have been some studies suggesting that anabolic signalling in muscle remains elevated for 36hours, and that the eating anabolic window can remain open for 24 hours.
Therefore if ones goal is fatloss, I expect it to be beneficial to wait 3 hours after working out before eating. If you want to loose weight you need to stop sending your adipocytes the signal to get bigger, and that is insulin.